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International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887)

Volume 45 No.23, May 2012

31

Performance Analysis of Sc-FDMA and OFDMA in LTE

Frame Structure

Muhammad Mokhlesur Rahman

Department of Computer Science & Engineering Ahsanullah University of Science & technology,

Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Shalima Binta Manir Department of Computer Science & Engineering Ahsanullah University of Science & technology,

Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT Long Term Evolution (LTE) is consents pliable spectrum

distribution which renders enriched wireless data services to

users at lower latency and multi-megabit throughput. LTE

uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

(OFDMA) and Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple

Access (Sc-FDMA) for downlink and Uplink transmission

where OFDMA has been acquired in LTE for downlink

transmission which diminishes the terminal cost and power

consumption and Sc-FDMA has been allocates multiple users

to a shared communication resources. Frequency Division

Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) are the

prevailing duplexing scheme in LTE that provides deployable

tractability according to spectrum assignation. In this paper,

we analyze the performance of SC-FDMA and OFDMA in

LTE Frame Structure based on Peak to Average Power Ratio

(PAPR) analysis. ITU Pedestrian A channel and ITU

Vehicular A channel and also Additive White Gaussian Noise

(AWGN) channel are used for analyzing the error

performance between SC-FDMA and OFDMA.

General Terms LTE, SNR, minimum BER, AWGN, FDD, TDD

Keywords Long Term Evolution (LTE), Frequency Division Duplex

(FDD), Time Division Duplex (TDD), Single Carrier

Frequency Division Multiple Access (Sc-FDMA), Orthogonal

Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), Additive

White Gaussian Noise (AWGN)

1. INTRODUCTION Long Term Evolution (LTE) enhances the susceptibility and

speed of wireless data networks using various types of

modulations (QPSK, 16QAM etc.). LTE redesigns and

modifies the network architecture with substantially diluted

transfer latent period. It depicts a wireless communication

system which endorses downlink transmission using

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)

scheme up to 300 mbps of data transmission and 75 mbps

throughput for uplink data transmission using Carrier

Frequency Division Multiple Access (Sc-FDMA). OFDMA

transmits data over a large number of subcarriers [1]. These

signals are spaced in reciprocally perpendicular axis

assembling at right angles to each another and their

summation will be zero which removes mutual interference.

SC-FDMA aggregates multipath interference abjuration and

flexible subcarrier frequency assignment which provides only

one carrier at a time instead of multiple carriers in

transmission. Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time

Division Duplex (TDD) are the two most common Frame

Structure that are used in LTE where both transmitter and

receiver operate on same frequency band and same time in

FDD, but in TDD both transmitter and receiver works on

same frequency at different time [2]. The purpose of this

paper is to analysis the performance of OFDMA (Downlink

transmission) and SC-FDMA (Uplink Transmission) in

different types of LTE Frame structures with different

modulation techniques. We analytically derive the OFDMA

and SC-FDMA signals in FDD and TDD mode and also

numerically compare PAPR characteristics using the

complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of

PAPR

The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 and

Section 3 provide the brief idea about the OFDMA system

model and SC-FDMA System Model. Section 4 describes the

LTE Frame Structure Types. In section 5, Simulation results

are given and we finally conclude in Section 6.

2. OFDMA System Model LTE (Long Term Evolution) uses OFDMA and SC-FDMA at

downstream and upstream for downlink and uplink

transmission. The OFDMA system model is shown in Figure

1. A brief description of the model is provided below.

At first, S symbols/second data are transmitted to the

transmitter and the data symbols are pass through a serial to

parallel converter and the data rate on every X line is S/X

symbols [3].The input data stream on each carrier is then

mapped by using different types of modulation scheme such

as QPSK, 16-QAM, 64QAM etc. Then Inverse fast Fourier

Transform is used to find the corresponding Time wave form,

which means that M symbols are sent to an Inverse Fast

Fourier Transform that performs N-point IFFT operation. The

output is N time sample [4]. The Guard interval is then

introduced at the start of each sample which is known as

addition of cyclic extension in the prefix. Then the length of

the output sample is N+LP. The cyclically extended symbols

are passed through a parallel to serial converter and then

transmitted through a channel [5]. A channel model is then

applied to the transmitted signal. The model allows for the

signal to noise ratio, multipath to be controlled. The signal to

noise ratio is set by adding a known amount of white noise to

the transmitted signal which is known as AWGN Additive

white Gaussian noise [16].The Receiver basically does the

reverse operation of the transmitter. The transmitted signals

which pass through the channel are then converted by using

Serial to parallel converter and cyclic extension is also

removed. The signals pass through an N-point Fast Fourier

Transform which converted time domain signal into

frequency domain. Then the signal is demapped and performs

parallel to serial conversion using Parallel to serial convert

block and the resultant signal is a M sample output [3].

http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=AWGN&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCcQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FAdditive_white_Gaussian_noise&ei=y56OT43JFsiJrAfs7eSlCQ&usg=AFQjCNFsj33I_QW3w7l2epBJPukl8WHecQ&cad=rjahttp://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=AWGN&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCcQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FAdditive_white_Gaussian_noise&ei=y56OT43JFsiJrAfs7eSlCQ&usg=AFQjCNFsj33I_QW3w7l2epBJPukl8WHecQ&cad=rjahttp://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=AWGN&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCcQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FAdditive_white_Gaussian_noise&ei=y56OT43JFsiJrAfs7eSlCQ&usg=AFQjCNFsj33I_QW3w7l2epBJPukl8WHecQ&cad=rja

International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887)

Volume 45 No.23, May 2012

32

Transmitter Receiver

Fig 1: OFDMA System Model

3. Sc-FDMA System Model The Sc-FDMA system model is shown in Figure 2. A brief

description of the model is provided below. The main

difference between SCFDMA and OFDMA is that SC-FDMA

has more discrete Fourier transform (DFT) processing, so we

can regarded as SCFDMA as a DFT-spread OFDMA where

time domain data signals are transformed to frequency domain

by a DFT before going through OFDMA modulation [6]. At

first, the input data stream is first modulated to single carrier

symbols by using Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), 16-

QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulator) or 64-QAM. The

resultant modulated symbols become the inputs of the

functional blocks of SCFDMA. Then the modulated symbols

are converted into parallel symbols and organized into blocks.

Now N-Point DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) Converts

time domain single carrier blocks into N discrete frequency

tones. Then Subcarrier Mapping, controls the frequency

allocation, and maps N discrete frequency tones to subcarriers

for transmission. The mapping can be localized or distributed.

In localized mapping, N-discrete frequency tones are mapped

on N consecutive subcarriers where as in distributed mapping;

N-discrete frequency tones are mapped on uniformly spaced

subcarriers. Then M-Point IDFT converts the mapped

subcarriers to time domain. If M >N then unused inputs are

set to zero. If they are equal (M = N), they simply cancel out

and it becomes a conventional single user single carrier

system with frequency domain equalization. However, if N is

smaller than M and the remaining inputs to the IDFT are set to

zero, the output of the IDFT will be a signal with single-

carrier properties, i.e. a signal with low power variations, and

with a bandwidth that depends on N [7]. Then the time

domain subcarriers are converted back from parallel to serial.

Cyclic Prefix CP is added to avoid ISI. The length of CP is

larger than the channel delay spread in order to avoid ISI at

the receiver. After passing through Channel the SC-FDMA

receiver does the inverse of SC-FDMA transmitter.

1.05"

1.05" 1.05"

Transmitter Receiver

Fig 2: Sc-FDMA System Model

4. LTE Frame Type In LTE, Downlink and uplink transmission are organized into

radio frame with Tf = 307200 * Ts=10 millisecond long where

Ts = 1/ (30.72 x 106) s 32.255 ns per clock period [8].Two

types of Frame structure i.e. (i) Frame structure type 1 that

e